Dr. Malcolm Kendrick, MD, discusses two populations that exhibit high levels of Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and explains how they can help to further illuminate the underlying cause of T2D in the general population.Read MoreDiabetes, Part 2: The Causal Role of Raised Insulin
The CrossFit stimulus—constantly varied high-intensity functional movement coupled with meat and vegetables, nuts and seeds, some fruit, little starch, and no sugar—prepares you for the demands of a healthy, functional, independent life and provides a hedge against chronic disease and incapacity. This stimulus is elegant in the mathematical sense of being marked by simplicity and efficacy. The proven elements of this broad, general, and inclusive fitness, in terms of both movement and nutrition, are what we term our CrossFit Essentials.
An extensive 2018 review summarizes the biological underpinnings of brain aging and proposes how metabolic dysfunction may contribute to their progression.Read MoreHallmarks of Brain Aging: Adaptive and Pathological Modification by Metabolic States
A 2017 review links hyperinsulinemia and other components of the metabolic syndrome to the development and progression of Alzheimer’s disease.Read MoreIs Alzheimer’s Disease a Type 3 Diabetes? A Critical Appraisal
In the first article in his new series on diabetes, Dr. Malcolm Kendrick, MD, discusses the long history of diabetes research and introduces several models for understanding the causes of the disease, as well as its progression. While the mechanism underlying Type 1 diabetes is generally agreed upon, debate continues over whether Type 2 is related to fat consumption or raised insulin levels resulting from carbohydrate intake. Kendrick explains and evaluates the arguments for each model.Read MoreDiabetes, Part 1: Disease Models
Several studies support the hypothesis that diet, particularly carbohydrate consumption, affects vision. One study compares the eyesight of hunter-gatherer and industrialized groups and finds myopia skyrockets when indigenous populations adopt a Western diet involving more refined carbohydrates. Another study explores the mechanism behind dietary contribution to myopia and finds increases in insulin promote eyeball elongation in animal models. A third study explores dietary sugar’s links to glaucoma, cataracts, diabetic retinopathy, and macular degeneration. Its authors ultimately recommend avoiding high glycemic index foods.Read MoreSugar and Sight
A 2015 review explores behavioral and mechanistic links between diabetes and depression.Read MoreThe Link Between Depression and Diabetes: The Search for the Shared Mechanisms
Georgia Ede summarizes the potential contributions of insulin resistance in the brain to Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease.Read MoreParkinson's, Alzheimer's, and the New Science of Hope
Could Intermittent Energy Restriction and Intermittent Fasting Reduce Rates of Cancer in Obese, Overweight, and Normal-Weight Subjects?
A 2016 review finds preliminary evidence suggesting intermittent fasting and similar eating patterns can reduce markers of cancer risk and progression. More intensive fasts, such as complete fasting on alternating days, show more consistent benefits; more moderate fasts show equivocal clinical impact.Read MoreCould Intermittent Energy Restriction and Intermittent Fasting Reduce Rates of Cancer in Obese, Overweight, and Normal-Weight Subjects?
“Since 1990, Uffe Ravnskov MD PhD has published over 100 scientific papers critical of the cholesterol campaign, proposing new hypotheses and also contending that ‘the successful dissemination of the diet-heart idea is due to authors systematically ignoring or misquoting (contradictory) studies.’”Read MoreThe Cholesterol Myths: Exposing the Fallacy that Saturated Fat and Cholesterol Cause Heart Disease
Added Sugars Drive Coronary Heart Disease via Insulin Resistance and Hyperinsulinaemia: A New Paradigm
This brief 2017 review surveys evidence that suggests increased consumption of added sugars increases heart disease risk, both indirectly by increasing the risk of diabetes and directly through other mechanisms.Read MoreAdded Sugars Drive Coronary Heart Disease via Insulin Resistance and Hyperinsulinaemia: A New Paradigm
Prof. Timothy Noakes provides evidence in support of Nina Teicholz’s argument that “the story of nutritional science is not, as we would expect, one of sober-minded researchers moving with measured judicious steps.” Teicholz claims it instead falls under “the ‘great man’ theory of history, whereby strong personalities steer events using their personal charisma, intelligence, wisdom, or wits.” According to Noakes, these qualities are precisely what allowed Ancel Keys to convince his colleagues to support his diet-heart and lipid hypotheses — even when the science did not.Read MoreIt’s the Insulin Resistance, Stupid: Part 10
Remission of Human Type 2 Diabetes Requires Decrease in Liver and Pancreas Fat Content but Is Dependent Upon Capacity for B Cell Recovery
This 2018 paper on the Diabetes Remission Clinical Trial (DiRECT) reports the small share of diabetic subjects who fail to achieve glycemic control with weight loss differ only from successful responders in the ability of their pancreatic beta-cells to return to normal function. The DiRECT study thus further establishes that diabetes can be reversed through diet alone. Significantly, it also reinforces the importance of early intervention, as a diet started soon after diagnosis (before stressors have begun to degrade pancreatic beta-cell function) is more likely to successfully reverse diabetes.Read MoreRemission of Human Type 2 Diabetes Requires Decrease in Liver and Pancreas Fat Content but Is Dependent Upon Capacity for B Cell Recovery
A Low-Carbohydrate High-Fat Diet Initiated Promptly After Diagnosis Provides Clinical Remission in Three Patients With Type 1 Diabetes
Three case reports demonstrate durable (in two cases permanent) remission of Type 1 diabetes through the introduction of a low-carbohydrate diet soon after diagnosis.Read MoreA Low-Carbohydrate High-Fat Diet Initiated Promptly After Diagnosis Provides Clinical Remission in Three Patients With Type 1 Diabetes
Prof. Tim Noakes separates fact from fiction in his examination of the data from the Framingham Heart Study (FHS). Despite the efforts of some of the study's lead scientists to wrench the data into supporting the association of dietary fat and blood cholesterol concentration with coronary heart disease (CHD), the study instead demonstrated insulin resistance is a significant risk factor for CHD mortality whereas blood cholesterol concentration has little or no practical predictive value, especially after age 50. Noakes also highlights the insights shared by Dr. George Mann, “who was initially one of the scientific leaders of the FHS but later resigned to express his displeasure at the fake science he detected."Read MoreIt’s the Insulin Resistance, Stupid: Part 9
This 2014 review summarizes cases of statin-induced rhabdomyolysis (rhabdo). Any detrimental effects statins may have on muscle weakness and/or muscle function are worth observing closely given the clinical significance of mobility in the elderly populations frequently prescribed statin drugs.Read MoreStatin-Induced Rhabdomyolysis: A Comprehensive Review of Case Reports
This 2019 study tested a variety of dietary interventions designed to elevate serum ketone levels on autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). The study found time-restricted feeding, fasting, a ketogenic diet, and beta-hydroxybutyrate supplementation each slowed the progression of, and in some cases even reversed, ADPKD in rats.Read MoreKetosis Ameliorates Renal Cyst Growth in Polycystic Kidney Disease
Dr. Malcolm Kendrick concludes his series on the response to injury hypothesis for cardiovascular disease (CVD) by observing that reducing risk relies on doing at least one of three things, and ideally all three: protecting the endothelium from damage, reducing blood coagulability, and improving the body’s healing processes. Kendrick highlights several specific ways to protect the endothelium, from quitting smoking to getting more sun to increasing potassium intake.Read MoreWhat Causes Cardiovascular Disease? The Response to Injury Hypothesis, Part 4
This 2018 review describes the causes and benefits of “flipping the metabolic switch” — that is, using fasting to transition the body from a state of fat storage to one of fatty acid release and oxidation.Read MoreFlipping the Metabolic Switch: Understanding and Applying the Health Benefits of Fasting