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CrossFit Health is an investigation into the ills of modern medicine and the wilful abuse of the public’s trust in science. The lessons learned from the legal dismantling of fake science, a crooked journal, and perjuring scientists have given us a forensic view as to how everything might have gone so wrong. We’re calling the combination of runaway medical costs and disease rates — which many profit from but none combat effectively — “The Mess.”

Dr. Timothy Noakes continues his discussion of the various abuses of science that led to the widespread and misguided belief that dietary fat is the single most important factor contributing to one's risk of developing heart disease. In this installment, Noakes focuses on research and events that transpired between 1959 and 1967.

Read MoreAncel Keys' Cholesterol Con, Part 6

"The relationship between doctors and patients is undergoing a profound change, which is reflected in medical journals," Richard Smith, former editor of the BMJ writes. Patients are ceasing to be "human guinea pigs" and are becoming participants in their own health care. In this chapter from "The Trouble With Medical Journals," Smith discusses the shift toward informed consent and patient participation in medical research and explains why there's still a long way to go.

Read MorePatients and Medical Journals: From Objects to Partners

Dr. Timothy Noakes reanalyzes the findings from the famous Framingham Heart Study and notes the flaws and biases in lead researchers' conclusions. Rather than supporting Ancel Keys' diet-heart hypothesis, the study demonstrated "the absence of any relationship between diet and blood cholesterol concentrations or CHD risk."

Read MoreAncel Keys' Cholesterol Con, Part 5

Richard Smith, former editor of the BMJ: "Editors must balance the demands of many different groups, from readers to owners, and must be accountable. Perhaps because of the power of the myth of editorial freedom editors are often much less accountable than other professionals, and there are many examples of editors abusing their positions without any retribution. But at the same time, if editors are slaves to the political commands of their owners then the journals they edit will never be respected. How can the right balance be achieved?"

Read MoreEditorial Misconduct, Freedom and Accountability: Amateurs at Work

According to former BMJ editor Richard Smith, research has shown, "far from conflict of interest being unimportant in the objective and pure world of science ... it is the main factor determining the result of studies." Smith claims "the best response to conflicts of interest seems to be disclosure rather than attempted eradication" and argues more studies are required to understand how to mitigate bias in research and patient care.

Read MoreConflicts of Interest: How Money Clouds Objectivity

A New York Times article published in the 1990s encapsulated the fat-related hysteria of the day by recommending buttered movie popcorn come with a life insurance add-on. Meanwhile, Dr. Robert Atkins, creator of the Atkins diet, was touting a low-carb diet high in fat and ruffling more than a few feathers along the way. When Atkins died in 2003, his detractors were quick to blame his diet, even if that meant distorting the facts and breaching several codes of ethics.

Read MoreThe Death of Dr. Atkins

Because academics “gain credit from publishing” and quantity is more important than quality, many publish closely related papers that add redundancy to medical research. This problem is compounded by pharmaceutical companies commissioning repeat publication of favorable studies. Though many think such practices are harmless, Richard Smith argues they lead to bias in the evidence doctors use to inform their treatment decisions. Treatments “may seem more effective than they are," which leads Smith to conclude redundant publication "pollutes medical evidence."

Read MorePublishing Too Much and Nothing: Serious Problems Not Just Nuisances

Dr. Timothy Noakes continues to examine the events leading up to the academic world’s acceptance of Ancel Keys’ unproven diet-heart hypothesis. Beginning with the Framingham Heart Study in 1948, Noakes then discusses the contributions of John Gofman, Edward Ahrens, and Norman Jolliffe while analyzing how their work became supplanted by a reductionistic model in which just one causative factor — cholesterol — could be considered of overwhelming importance to the study of heart disease.

Read MoreAncel Keys' Cholesterol Con, Part 4

Richard Smith, former editor of the BMJ, examines the advantages and disadvantages of various authorship models for the publication of scientific research. He advocates for a model based on contributorship rather than authorship. He claims such a model would "reflect the diversity of views of contributors ... [and] help to move us beyond the illusion of a scientific paper as an objective artefact to a living, human and therefore imperfect document."

Read MoreThe Death of the Author and the Birth of the Contributor?

"Peer review is at the heart of the processes of not just medical journals but of all science," writes Richard Smith, former editor of the BMJ. In this excerpt from his book, The Trouble With Medical Journals, Smith argues "peer review is a flawed process full of easily identified defects with little evidence that it works." He proposes a few ways the system may be improved.

Read MorePeer Review: A Flawed Process at the Heart of Science and Journals

In the previous column, Dr. Timothy Noakes listed the sequence of events that were critical in directing the global acceptance of Ancel Keys’ diet-heart and lipid hypotheses. In this column, he investigates the relevant events that unfolded between 1910 and 1948 and discusses Dr. Vladimir Subbotin’s alternative hypothesis for coronary atherosclerosis.

Read MoreAncel Keys' Cholesterol Con, Part 3

CrossFit, Inc. presents CrossFit Health Education, a program that provides continuing education and professional development opportunities for physicians, health-care professionals, and trainers. Membership in the program is also open to anyone interested in furthering their understanding of medical science, human health, and performance via access to world-class experts and educational content.

Read MoreCrossFit Health Education Launches

Prof. Timothy Noakes highlights 70 events he claims were critical in advancing the global acceptance of Ancel Keys’ diet-heart and lipid hypotheses. Noakes’ timeline details the major studies, scandals, and recovered trial results that ultimately disproved Keys’ hypotheses, which nevertheless continue to influence global eating habits and metabolic health.

Read MoreAncel Keys' Cholesterol Con, Part 2